Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum term. It incorporate the health care extent of family planning, preconception, prenatal, and postnatal care in order to protect a positive and fulfilling experience in most cases and reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in other cases. Whereas child care, child minding or day-care is the caring for and supervision of a child or children, usually ranging from age six weeks to age thirteen. Child care is the action or skill of looking after children by a day-care center, nannies, babysitter, teachers or other providers. Child care is a broad topic that covers a wide spectrum of professionals, institutions, contexts, activities, social and cultural conventions. Early child care is an equally important and often overlooked component of child development. Child care providers can be our children's first teachers, and therefore play an integral role in our systems of early childhood education. Quality care from a young age can have a huge impact on the future successes of children.
The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) estimated that 289,000 women died of pregnancy or childbirth related causes in 2013. These causes range from severe bleeding to obstructed labour, all of which have highly effective interventions. As women have gained access to family planning and skilled birth attendance with backup emergency obstetric care, the global maternal mortality ratio has fallen from 380 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 210 deals per 100,000 live births in 2013. This has resulted in many countries halving their maternal death rates. Usually children are taken care of by their parents, legal guardians or siblings. Cross-culturally, children caring for children is very common. This informal care includes verbal direction and other explicit training regarding the child's behaviour, and is often as simple as "keeping an eye out" for younger siblings. Care facilitated by similar-aged children covers a variety of developmental and psychological effects in both caregivers and charge. This care giving role may also be taken on by the child's extended family. In lieu of familial care giving, these responsibilities may be given to paid-caretakers, orphanages or foster homes to provide care, housing, and schooling.
Abortion is restricted in Thailand, meaning it is only legal for girls under age 15 or if the pregnancy poses a threat to physical health of the mother or is a result of rape. About 30 deaths per 100,000 live births are due to abortion in Thailand. The following table from the United Nations Population Fund shows the regional burden of maternal mortality resulting from abortion in 2000. The countries with the highest rates are those where abortion is unconditionally prohibited (or was at the time, in the case of Cambodia, though it is now legal). Thus, increasing access to safe abortion in Thailand would have a strong impact on maternal mortality. At this time, the Thai Ministry of Health has made no such efforts.
The health of mothers and children is interrelated and affected by multiple factors.1 Millions of pregnant women, new mothers, and children experience severe illness or death each year, largely from preventable or treatable causes.2 Almost all maternal and child deaths (99%) occur in the developing world, with Africa being the hardest hit region.3 Attention to maternal and child health (MCH) has been growing, under-five and maternal mortality have fallen substantially since 1990, and improving MCH is seen as critical to fostering economic development.
Maternal Health: The health of mothers during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the postpartum period.
Child Health: The health of children from birth through adolescence, with a focus on the health of children under the age of five. New born health is the health of babies from birth through the first 28 days of life.
Total U.S. funding for MCH and nutrition, which includes the U.S. contributions to Gavi and UNICEF as well as support for polio activities, has increased from $728 million in FY 2006 to $1.4 billion in FY 2017. However, the current Administration has proposed reduced MCH funding for FY 2018.
Most U.S. funding for MCH and nutrition is provided through the Global Health Programs account at USAID, with additional funding provided through the Economic Support Fund account. MCH funding is also provided through the International Organizations & Programs account at the State Department for the U.S. contribution to UNICEF and through CDC's global immunization programs